Curso de Volcanologia de Campo de los Andes Centrales

Octubre 2001

Participe en el Curso Internacional de Volcanologia de Campo de los Andes Centrales (VIII Edicion), dirigido por el Prof. Dr. Jose Viramonte y asistido por el Dr. Ivan Petrinovic, ambos de la Universidad Nacional de Salta - CONICET y por el Dr. Guillermo Alvarado Induni, del Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad - Universidad de Costa Rica . Los profesores dirigieron un curso fantastico !!. Todos los participantes aprendieron mucho, y tuvieron la oportunidad de vivir una gran aventura en la Puna de los Andes Centrales. Tome las fotos con una camara digital, pero algunas de ellas fueron tomadas con mi camara de pelicula. He puesto tambien algunas fotos tomadas por Silvia Regina de Medeiros.

I attended the 8th International Volcanology Field Course of the Central Andes. The course was directed by Jose Viramonte, who was assisted by Ivan Petrinovic, both from the National University of Salta in Argentina, and by Guillermo Alvarado Induni, of the Geophysical Institute of Costa Rica. The professors directed a fantastic course; all of the participants learned a great deal and we interacted well with each other, both scientifically and socially! We had a great adventure in the high Puna of the central Andes. I took most of the pictures with a digital camera; I included here thumbnails, medium-resolution, and high-resolution images. There are, however, a few scanned pictures that I took with my little disposable camera! There are also a few exceptional photos here taken by Silvia Regina de Medeiros, I have credited her where the photos appear.

Aqui son las puntas GPS sobre una mapa de satelita LANDSAT.

Here is a rough placement of our GPS points atop a mosaic of LANDSAT images from the region. full

Waypoints taken by GPS Unit during our excursion on the Puna

GPS Point Name Description S Latitude W Longitude
SAL1 SALTA-SANT ROAD Road from Salta to San Antonio de los Cobres 24.78256 65.73340
SAL2 ALMUERZ ON ROAD Lunch before arriving in San Antonio de los Cobres 24.48866 65.88998
SAL4 RAMA PERLITE Perlite mines at Ramadas Caldera 24.13681 66.33150
SAL5 QUEB TAJAMAR Quebrada de Tajamar 24.23736 66.44036
SAL6 E RIM AGUAS CAL East rim of Aguas Calientes caldera 24.34059 66.49321
SAL7 SALAR PAST GRAND Salar de Pastos Grandes 24.57290 66.71723
SAL8 SALAR HOMB MUER Salar de Hombre Muerto 25.31879 67.16488
SAL9 ANT DL SIERRA Town of Antofagasta de la Sierra 26.06230 67.40701
SAL10 KLIPPE SofANT Klippe south of Antofagasta de la Sierra 26.35306 67.38179
SAL11 DUNES SofANT Dune field (Cerro Blanco) S of Antofagasta de la Sierra 26.51701 67.40517
SAL12 EL PENON Town of El Penon 26.47500 67.26554
SAL13 VICUNA PAMPA STOP Stop on north border of Vicuna Pampa caldera 26.78362 67.24010
SAL14 DIKE VIC PAMPA Dike within walls of Vicuna Pampa caldera 26.81258 66.98499
SAL15 QUEB INDALECIO Quebrada Indalecio 27.08361 66.82534
SAL16 CAFAYATE In town of Cafayate, near hotel 26.07125 65.97253
SAL17 DESAYUN LST DAY Lunch stop, last day, at wooded area 25.92991 65.72047
SAL18 QUEB SUNCHAL Quebrada Sunchal 25.72195 65.69861

Daily pictures and summary of events

De Salta a San Antonio de los Cobres (3 Octubre)

From Salta to San Antonio de los Cobres (3 October)

Mirando el camino, las montanas con cactus Depositos conglomeradicos rojos (Cretacico-Paleoceno ) con erosion "tent-like"(como una tienda?). Una falla pone en contacto secuencias Precambricas- Ordovicicas (con trilobites) sobre los estratos rojos del Cretacico.

Looking up the road through the canyon, there are mountains covered in Saguaro cacti, similar to the mountains in Tucson! Red conglomerate deposits (Cretacic-Paleocene) are seen here with tent-like erosion (often seen in ash-flow tuffs). A fault puts Precambrian-Ordovician beds (with trilobites) over the red beds.
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Carolina, Juan, Rosemery, y Jani a 4080 metros! En el mas alto lugar de esta parte de la ruta 51. Marcelo, Ivan, y Jose discutiendo las ignimbritas andesiticas (Ignimbrita Viscachayoc) localizadas al E de San Antonio de los Cobres (area Los Patos). Caminamos por un trecho, por la via del tren, antes de llegar a San Antonio de los Cobres. Hernando en frente de la ignimbrita Viscachayoc.

Carolina, Juan, Rosemery, and Jani at 4080 meters! This is the highest point on this part of "highway" 51. Marcelo, Ivan, and Jose discuss the andesitic ignimbrites (Viscachayoc Ignimbrite) east of San Antonio de los Cobres. We took a little walk along the train tracks prior to arriving in San Antonio de los Cobres; Hernando stands in front of the Viscachayoc Ignimbrite.
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San Antonio de los Cobres (4 Octubre)

Depositos obsidianos perlitizados (con granates espesartinicos juveniles) de la Caldera de Ramadas conteniendo impactos de bombas. En estas obsidianas perlitizadas, pueden observarse estratos fluidales , Rosemery en frente. Llamas! Almuerzo en el flujo shoshonitico del volcan monogenetico Cuaternario Negro de Chorrillos (con piroxenos, olivino, biotita y xenocristales de cuarzo!), con Ivan y Guillermo. En la alutura maxima de la ruta abra de Chorrillos (4560 mts!!). Vista del volcan San Jeronimo, otro cono shoshoniticos al lado de las ignimbritas de Aguas Calientes. El grupo en el punto mas alto (Foto de Silvia).

Perlitized obsidian deposits (with juvenile spessrtinic garnet!) from the Ramadas caldera are shown here, containing a bomb. Fluidized and broken up beds can be seen in these perlitized obsidians, with Rosemery in front. Llamas!! We had lunch next to the shoshonite flow from the Negro de Chorrillos volcano (these are basic flows, with pyroxene, olivine, and * xenocrysts of quartz*! There is definitely crustal contamination!! ); Ivan and Guillermo are sitting on these flows. At the highest point of road (Abra de Chorrillos 4.560 mts) is a view of the San Jeronimo shoshonite cone next to the ignimbrites of Aguas Calientes caldera. The group is all together at the highest point in the road (photo by Silvia).
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Desde San Antonio de los Cobres a Antofagasta de la Sierra (5 Octubre)

From San Antonio de los Cobres to Antofagasta de la Sierra (October 5)

Un panorama de la pared E de la caldera de Aguas Calientes.al centro el domo resurgente, y flujos color verde. Sobre el outflow sheet, mirada a la pared este, y en la distancia, el domo central resurgente. Silvia y Rosemery paradas en frente de los estratovolcanes Quevar (der, 6200 m de altura) y Azufrero (iz) en el pueblo Santa Rosa de los Pastos Grandes. Una llama, muchas llamas! (2 fotos de Silvia) Marcelo, Juan, y Jani con las llamas (camara de pelicula).

This is a view from the east wall of Aguas Calientes caldera, with the resurgent center and "green" flows (green in Landsat). We are on top of the smooth outflow sheet, looking back at the east wall, and in the distance is the resurgent center. Silvia and Rosemery stand in front of Quevar (right) and Azufrero (left) stratovolcanoes, with the pueblo of Santa Rosa de los Pastos Grandes to the left. A llama more llamas! (Both photos are from Silvia.) Marcelo, Juan, and Jani pose together with the llamas (disposable camera).
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El grupo en el Salar de Pastos Grandes. Nuestro audaz lider Jose nos llevo a traves del salar hasta los depositos salinos del Pleitoceno. Los depositos haliticos tienen un espectacular fracturamiento poligonal muy regular de menos de un metro de diametro. Mas al sur, encontramos el espectacular Salar del Hombre Muerto. Un panorama desde el SO del salar hacia el centro del mismo al atardecer.

The whole group poses at the Salar de Pastos Grandes (a *large* playa lake, used as an alternate landing site for the space shuttle!). Our fearless leader Jose rests here on his favorite playa. The halite deposits have extremely regular polygonal cracks, just under a meter in diameter. There are also some giant cracks surrounding the smaller ones. Further south, we reached the spectacular Salar de Hombre Muerto (extremely similar to Devil's Golfcourse in Death Valley, CA). This view is looking from the southwest of the playa lake toward its center, at sunset.
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Hernando sobre flujos de tipo "aa" del volcan monogenetico "De La Laguna", al O de Antofagasta de la Sierra. Flujos desde el cono norte De La Laguna, mostrando estructuras "cordadas, en tripas, etc." mas fluidas que las tipo "aa". Todo el grupo en frente de la Ignimbrita Cerro Galan. Sara frente a magnificas estructuras de enfriamiento radiales ("radial cooling joints" ) Panorama hacia al SO mostrando la relacion de edades entre la Ignimbrita Cerro Galan y los conos pequenos basalticos. Calle en Antofagasta de la Sierra (camara de pelicula). Ivan, Marcelo, y Berta(?) en frente del hotel de Antofagasta de la Sierra

Hernando stands in front of aa flows from the small cinder cone "De La Laguna", to the west of the town of Antofagasta de la Sierra. We also looked at the flows from the cone to the north of the Laguna cone; these had "toothpaste" aa, slightly more fluid than typical aa. This is a great group shot in front of the Cerro Gal n Ignimbrite; note the extremely regular radial cooling patterns. Sara stands in front of some extremely large radial cooling joints in the Cerro Gal n Ignimbrite. This view shows the relative timing of volcanic features in the Puna; the silicic Cerro Gal n Ignimbrite is capped by young basaltic cinder cones and flows this view looks southwest toward the two cones near Antofagasta de la Sierra. This is the street in front of our hotel in Antofagasta de la Sierra (disposable camera). Ivan, Marcelo, and Berta are getting ready for the day in front of our hotel in Antofagasta de la Sierra.
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Desde Antofagasta de la Sierra al fin del Puna y El Penon (7 Octubre)

From Antofagasta de la Sierra to the end of the Puna to El Pe¤¢n (October 7)

Dirigiendonos hacia el sur, pasamos muy cerca de los conos monogeneticos tipo OIB De la Laguna, La Alumbrera y Volcanes Del Jote . Nadia en lavas tipo "aa" y cordadas. Dos fotos panoramicas de la region sur de Antofagasta de la Sierra con el volcan Carichipampa a la derecha, y la ignimbrita pumicea del Cerro Blanco.por detras. Tambien puede observarse el "klippe" de basamento del Jote a la izquierda del centro, y los conos del Jote (OIB ) a la izquierda (flujos del cono De La Laguna en frente izq).

Driving to the south of Antofagasta de la Sierra, we passed very close to the cinder cones. Nadia is shown here with some toothpaste lava. Two pictures form a panorama of the view to the south of Antofagasta de la Sierra, toward the south end of the Puna. Carichipampa cinder cone is seen on the right, surrounded by the white ignimbrite of Cerro Blanco caldera, in the distance; the basement "El Jote klippe" is left of center, and the cinder cones and flows of El Jote (OIB signature) are to the left (the flows of the small La Laguna cones can be seen in the left front).
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Los Hombres!! (Hernando, Guillermo, Jose, Marcelo, Juan, Ivan, y Flavio) con la Puna muy plana, la ignimbrita puimicea del Cerro Blanco y el volcan monogenico Carichipampa. Volcan Carichipampa y flujos de lava. Guillermo discutiendo algo con el grupo en frente de la hermosa ignimbrita del Cerro Blanco. A unos 40 km del crater. Contacto con paleodunas (gris) procedentes de cenizas del V. Carachipampa truncadas por depositos coluviales.

The men!!! (Hernando, Guillermo, Jose, Marcelo, Juan, Ivan, and Flavio) are framed by the extremely flat and bare Puna, the white ignimbrite of Cerro Blanco, and the cinder cone of Carichipampa. A closer view of Carichipampa and its flows is shown. Guillermo discusses details with the group in front of the beautiful Cerro Blanco ignimbrite, some 40 kilometers from its source. Grey paleodunes are truncated by lighter and pinker brecciated flood deposits.
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Panorama al sur, una meseta basaltica sobre dunas: La Luna, Marte, y Io!!! Como en otro planeta dunas de pomez blancas cubren flujos basalticos (2 fotos de Silvia). Plantas como pelo largo, y camioneta descansado. Montanas precambricas, trayecto al valle de El Penon. Ninos bonitos de El Penon.

This view to the south shows a basalt mesa and light dunes in the distance. This is another planet pick your favorite: the Moon, Mars, or Io! Abutting and partially covering the dark basalts are white dunes, carved by wind from the Cerro Blanco ignimbrite, which now stands as isolated pillars etched out of its deposited sheet (both photos by Silvia). Long-haired plants, out of a Dr. Seuss book, frame the resting car and its passengers. As we drove over the pass to the east, toward the town of El Penon, we were flanked by Precambrian mountains. The *cute* kids of El Penon!
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Desde El Penon a Cafayate (8 Octubre)

From El Penon to Cafayate (October 8)

Berta, Hernando, y Guillermo, en el valle de El Penon, con la ignimbrita del Cerro Blanco detras. Cono y flujos del volcancito de Pasto Ventura, un complejo en la misma linea NO-SE del Carichipampa y Vicuna Pampa. Juan, Silvia, y Guillermo, con flujos lavicos de Pasto Ventura, parcialmente cubiertos por dunas de pomez provenientes de la ignimbrita del Cerro Blanco. Caldera de Vicuna Pampa, facies externas. Ventifactos en granitos del Precambrico Superior- Paleozoico Inferior, al noroeste de Vicuna Pampa

Berta, Hernando, and Guillermo pose together in the valley of El Penon, as we are heading to the south, with the Cerro Blanco ignimbrite in the background, in the next valley. Flows emanated from a small volcano of the Pasto Ventura field, a complex along the same fault as Carachipampa and the caldera of Vicu¤a Pampa. Juan, Silvia, and Guillermo brave the wind in front of flows in the Pasto Ventura field, which are covered by pomez dunes from the Cerro Blanco ignimbrite. This is the western outflow sheet of Vicuna Pampa caldera. The wind here is extremely strong, and is constant, as can be seen by the ventifacts in Upper Precambrian. Lower Paleozoic granites, to the northwest of Vicu¤a Pampa.
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Caldera de Vicuna Pampa, borde norte. Marcelo, con el "piso" de al caldera, se observa un bloque de basamento a la derecha, y la pared de la caldera a la izquierda. El piso de la caldera Vicuna Pampa, mirada hacia el sur. Los bloques de basamento son del Precambrico Superior - Paleozoico Inferior y estan distribuidos hacia el borde oriental. Ivan discutiendo los depositos de Vicuna Pampa. Detalle de un dique post-caldera con Sara, Rosemery y Nadia. Pared de la caldera con coladas de lavas, sobre deposito de "block-and-ash flow" que descansan sobre basamento. Almuerzo cerca de Vicuna Pampa (camara de pelicula). Vicunas! en la Reserva natural de "Laguna Blanca"(Foto de Silvia)

The entire north border of Vicuna Pampa caldera is shown here, flanked by its outflow sheets. Marcelo shows us the caldera "floor" (this is a strange floor, there are blocks everywhere that didn't collapse!), with a Precambrian block to the right, and the caldera wall to the left. This is a view to the south, looking along the entire caldera floor, interrupted by Upper Precambrian-Lower Paleozoic blocks distributed throughout the eastern border . Ivan discusses the deposits of Vicu¤a Pampa. Sara, Rosemery, and Nadia sit on a post-caldera dike that intersected the inner wall. The caldera wall is exposed from the interior, with lava beds (this is a large andesitic caldera) overlying block and ash deposits, which overly the basement. We ate lunch on the road outside the north border of the Vicuna Pampa caldera (disposable camera). Vicunas! (Amazing deer/antelope/llama-like creatures!) "Laguna Blanca" Nature Reserve (Photo by Silvia)
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Jose, Sara, Nadia, y Silvia, cerca de rio (!) en la Quebrada Indalecio. Marcelo con cabeza mojada pero limpia... Un limpio Marcelo cerca de un sonriente Guillermo. Rosemery, como estrella de cine, y Hernando tambien.

Jose, Sara, Nadia, and Silvia take a much deserved rest in a canyon, where we actually found water! (Indalecio Canyon) Marcelo takes desperate measures to ensure his head is wet but clean and the final product a clean Marcelo, next to a smiling Guillermo. Rosemery looks just like a movie star, in this picturesque canyon, and so does Hernando!
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La cena en Cafayate, la ultima noche en campo. Otra vez a la mesa (pero para desayunar), donde todo ocurre . En la bodega, en el museo, con la linda guia. "Cheers!" del grupo. Los lideres de Salta, Jose, Berta, y Ivan, felices con el proximo fin del campo y con buenas bebidas !!!!

This is dinner, our last night together in the field, in Cafayate. Again we are at the table (but this time at breakfast), where it all happens! We got to tour a bodega (winery); here we are in the museum with our pretty guide. The group gives a "Cheers!" with their free samples. The leaders from Salta Jose, Berta, and Ivan are excited because of the imminent end of the course and because of their tasty drinks!
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Desde Cafayate a Salta (9 Octubre)

From Cafayate to Salta (October 9)

Hernando, Nadia, y Sara pensando sobre las migmatitas al oeste del Cafayate. Marcelo con una nueva migmatita con granata y cordierita. Jani y Jose en frente de los red-beds Terciarios "Los Castillos". Jani, Silvia, y Jose! La mafia Brasilera, con cactus (dos fotos de Silvia). El ultimo almuerzo, debajo de los arboles Nadia, Rosemery, y Sara. Foto del grupo final, con mucho verde detras!!.

Hernando, Nadia, and Sara mull over the history of the migmatites in the canyon west of Cafayate. Marcelo has a new friend, a migmatite with vermillion garnet and indigo cordierite. Jani and Jose pose in front of the red beds (looks just like southern Utah!), and the same shot, with Silvia and Jose, offers a comparison between the digital camera and film (photo by Silvia). I like the colors better in the photo! The mafia Brasilera embrace each other and a Saguaro cactus (photo by Silvia). The last lunch we shared together underneath green shade trees; Nadia, Rosemery, and Sara enjoy the shade. The last group photo shows us with greenery in the background!
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Diques subparalelos en el complejo Volcanico de Tres Cruces; los dos con forma "pinch-out". Amfiteatro, con Hernando y Flavio. Nadia con flujos piroclasticos Cretacicos en la Quebrada Abra Sunchal. Carolina pensando en el origen de un bloque en flujos del Sunchal.

Subparallel dikes formed by "pinch-out" can be seen in the foreground in this picture in Tres Cruces. Hernando and Flavio purchase wares in front of the water-carved, sandstone amphitheater. Nadia provides a scale in the flows of Sunchal (a canyon carved into a small stratovolcano). Carolina ponders the origin of a large block in the Sunchal flows.
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The Puna, and the entire experience, were absolutely fantastic! I was so lucky to have been able to go.

Que fantastica la Puna, y toda la experiencia!

Con saudade a todos--

--Jani Radebaugh

Look here for pictures of our exciting days in Buenos Aires!


Last Modified: 25 Enero 2002

Help on picture formatting obtained from Ross Beyer.

For content of this page contact
Jani Radebaugh / jani@lpl.arizona.edu